新聞

新聞

棄用安全套男士受信任及酒精影響

當局提倡安全性行為,但「關懷愛滋」於7至9月訪問368名異性戀男士,發現「信任」及「受酒精影響」是導致男士進行不安全性行為的主因。聖誕將至,組織建議男士出外慶祝及參與派對時,應衡量自己的酒量,訂立飲酒上限,並隨身帶備安全套,做足安全措施,減低感染愛滋病病毒及性病的風險。

受訪者被問及在過去半年性行為情況(可選一項以上),57.3%人曾與女性性工作者發生性行為、43%曾於過去6個月與固定性伴侶發生性行為,另有兩成表示曾與非固定性伴侶發生性行為。在該3個組別中,分別有23%、68%及56%的受訪者曾進行無套陰道交或肛交。結果亦顯示,「信任」及「受酒精影響」是男士進行不安全性行為的主要風險因素。

疑憂破壞雙方關係

「關懷愛滋」項目總監張曉華(中)表示,男士與非固定性伴侶或女性性工作者進行不安全性行為時,會以對方外表或認識時間的長短作為信任基礎;與固定性伴侶進行不安全性行為時,不少男士會單方面認為使用安全套會破壞雙方的信任。

「關懷愛滋」預防項目經理劉志昌(右)呼籲,所有曾經進行不安全性行為的人士,都應及早預約進行愛滋病病毒抗體測試,了解自己的健康狀況。

Web Articles:
19/12/2014 | 棄用安全套 男士受信任及酒精影響
http://www.am730.com.hk/article-242050

A片演員強制戴套 法官︰未違言論自由

〔編譯周虹汶╱綜合報導〕美國加州洛杉磯郡的選民兩年前投票通過成人電影演員拍攝性愛場景時應戴保險套的主張,推動洛杉磯郡立法規範;業者不服,以「違反言論自由」之名,於美國聯邦地區法院挑戰該規定。美國聯邦第九巡迴上訴法院在十五日做出最新判決,認定洛杉磯郡的法令有理,成人電影演員拍片做愛應戴套,且應定期接受性病檢查。

業者稱影片警語讓人性趣缺缺

洛杉磯郡「生動娛樂集團」(Vivid Entertainment)等成人片業者,當初係以洛杉磯郡法規違反「客戶」的「言論表達自由」為由,提出官司訴訟。業者表示,具有「保護措施」的影片不斷提醒著觀眾懷孕與疾病風險等現實面,讓客戶「從天堂回到人間」。為維護生計,業者與演員共同聘請律師,援引《美國憲法第一修正案》與洛杉磯郡法令抗衡。

當初推動洛杉磯郡立法的美國加州「愛滋病醫療保健基金會」(AHF)指出,成人片演員感染性病的比例為一般人的十倍。

承審此案的聯邦第九巡迴上訴法院法官三人小組於十五日透過判決表示,儘管「人性本『色』」,但洛杉磯郡立法目的為防止「後續效應」,使用保險套不僅可防止性病傳播,也是「適當表達的替代手段」,故洛杉磯郡法令可「例外」地限制「性言論」。法官並判共同提起告訴的三名演員應每月至少進行一次性病檢驗。

「後同盟」反對性歧視立法

【太陽報專訊】社會繼續有反對平機會主席周一嶽倡議性傾向歧視立法的意見,致力協助後同性戀者的「後同盟」顧問康貴華指出,該會現時已被其他同志聯盟排擠,指摘他們幫助同志離開同志生活,做法是歧視及冒犯,擔心立法後會變本加厲,該會難以順利發揮。「後同盟」亦擔心性歧視立法後會衍生另一個教育問題,如小學灌輸性教育知識時,會將異性戀及同性戀標籤為「天生、正常及無必要改變」等錯誤價值觀,剝削同志選擇離開同志圈的權利。

後同性戀者(簡稱後同)泛指一群有同性戀傾向,但已離開同性戀生活模式,變回單身或異性戀的性小眾人士,該會昨日舉辦「性傾向.無歧視」多媒體創作大賽暨嘉年華。康貴華指,「後同盟」在性傾向歧視立法沒有既定立場,持中立態度,但有「後同」向他反映,一旦性傾向歧視條例通過,同志人士或同志團體會進一步抹黑他們這班改變的一群,甚至有觸犯法律的風險,而他們尋求改變的出路亦會被封殺。

籲尊重不同人士生活方式

不少同性戀者的父母亦向康貴華表示反對立例,擔心會衍生出一個教育的問題,如小學灌輸性教育知識時,性歧視立法後會將異性戀及同性戀標籤為「天生、正常及無必要改變」等錯誤的價值觀,剝削同志選擇離開同志圈子的權利。他認為應該透過公眾教育同樣能有效消除歧視,呼籲社會尊重不同人士的生活方式及決定,憂慮一刀切立例會讓社會步向單一化。

對此,周一嶽表示尊重,但重申歧視應該零容忍,而法律是對受歧視人士重要的保障,環觀其他歧視條例,認為立法才能保障性小眾人士。他又指,中大性別研究中心仍會繼續諮詢性傾向歧視工作,預期明年中旬公布研究結果,讓平機會及港府參考,決定有關包含範疇、豁免部分等立法的可行性。

潘基文呼籲2030年結束愛滋病流行

新華社聯合國電:聯合國秘書長潘基文1日就世界愛滋病日發表致辭,呼籲各國領導人為防治愛滋病團結起來,以實現在2030年結束愛滋病流行。

潘基文說,目前全球有近1400萬人在接受愛滋病治療。自2001年來,愛滋病的新感染率降低了38%。通過提供必要的抗逆轉錄病毒藥物,有116萬新生兒免受愛滋病毒感染。我們有望在2015年為1500萬人提供抗逆轉錄病毒藥物治療,並在其後幾年內消除病毒的母嬰傳播。

他說,這些進展仍然不夠。目前,全球有3500萬愛滋病病毒攜帶者,其中大約1900萬人不知道自己攜帶病毒,針對關鍵群體採取的措施仍然嚴重不足,三分之二需要治療的兒童得不到醫治。在愛滋病流行率高的國家中,青年婦女尤其容易被感染。由於感染者遭受羞辱、歧視和法律上的懲罰,愛滋病疫情在東歐、中亞和中東日趨嚴重。

上月,聯合國愛滋病規劃署明確提出到2030年結束愛滋病流行的「快速通道」目標。設定到2020年實現「90-90-90」目標,具體為90%的愛滋病病毒攜帶者自身知情,90%知情的攜帶者獲得治療及90%接受治療的人體內病毒受到抑制。而到2030年,各項具體目標的完成比例將提高至95%。

The Best Way to Beat AIDS Isn’t Drug Treatment. It’s a Living Wage.

n a report marking World Aids Day on Dec. 1, the advocacy organization ONE announced that we are reaching “the beginning of the end” of the disease: For the first time, “the world added more people last year to life-saving AIDS treatment than the number of people who became newly infected with HIV in the same year.”

But of the 1.2 million Americans living with HIV only 37 percent are taking medications, and 1 in 7 are unaware that they are HIV positive, according to the Centers for Disease Control. With new infections in the U.S. hovering around 50,000 per year, the end is still a long ways off.

To get there, some policymakers are turning to a pill: New York Governor Andrew Cuomo is betting that the recently introduced pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), Truvada, will help to drastically reduce HIV by 2020. The drug’s effectiveness (it’s been shown to successfully thwart virus replication in HIV negative people) and its accessibility (the governor rightfully negotiated down its cost with the pharmaceutical companies that corner the anti-HIV drug market) make it the linchpin of New York’s newest HIV initiative. Cuomo hopes PrEP will, within five years, help to reduce the annual number of new HIV cases below the number of annual deaths caused by AIDS.

But treatment can also lead to complacency and, ultimately, more pills. Cuomo’s laudable plan, the first in the nation to set the stage for HIV eradication, risks failure, if it doesn’t also address HIV’s most virulent precursor, catalyst, and enabler: Poverty.

As it happens, the maps of poverty in the United States—where officially 14.5 percent of the population is poor and another 5 percent are nearly poor—overlay quite seamlessly onto the maps of HIV. That should come as no surprise to anyone who studies or treats chronic conditions, most of which—diabetes, heart disease, kidney disease, etc.—correlate with poverty.

Not only does poverty prevent us from accessing the stuff of life that buffers us from poor health, it also creates hospitable environments for disease. People living at or near poverty have greater levels of stress hormones, like cortisol, running through their bodies. And stress has a direct effect on each of the ten leading causes of death in the United States.

This isn’t the “good” stress that saves us from dangerous situations (“fight or flight”) or even the “medium” stress that causes panic before public speaking, as a work deadline looms, or on the way to the birth of your first child. The stress of poverty is a chronic stress that kills by hastening the wear and tear of processes and organs that are necessary for our survival. In fact, chronic stress is akin to untreated HIV: it assaults the immune system and quickens the transition to AIDS.

Poverty doesn’t only manifest internally. People struggling to make ends meet are more likely to be perpetrators of violence and to be its victims. They are more likely to drown their sorrows and to inject drugs. They are more likely to fall into homelessness. They are less likely to have healthy nutrition options. And they are also less likely to access and adhere to prevention or treatment regimens for all of their ailments, not just HIV.

The situation may get worse before it gets better. Research recently found that countries in recession and with growing income inequality experienced jumps in HIV incidence. It isn’t only our elevated poverty levels that put us at risk. A comparison of 141 countries ranks the United States 100th in income equality. Lesotho, which has an adult HIV prevalence of 23 percent, is in last place. The country with the most equal distribution of income is Sweden; its HIV prevalence is 0.2 percent.

Being poor is a more accurate predictor of HIV than being male, female, Black or Hispanic is. A 2010 study of poor urban areas found that race and gender were not significant predictors of HIV prevalence. Why then are our proposed solutions for a problem with economic roots overwhelmingly clinical?

Cuomo and our other leaders would do well to focus on progressive fiscal policies such as a living wage, universal health care, and a basic income. These measures would lift Americans out of poverty, save money on health costs, and, most importantly, save lives.

It won’t be easy. Even with popular support, these economic policies continue to be controversial in the halls of power. But this World AIDS Day is as good a time as any to remember that controversial interventions—condoms, disclosure, and needle exchange—have been some of the most successful in the battle against HIV.

It’s because we discriminate that HIV doesn’t have to. It just picks off the poor, disenfranchised, disempowered, and otherwise oppressed members of our society. Reducing poverty will give millions of people more room to breathe, to arrive at informed conclusions, and to make the decisions that will ultimately eradicate HIV and, in the process, ease the entire disease burden on society.

The alternative is the status quo: a long road paved with well-intentioned but inefficient, piecemeal plans and initiatives.

Alejandro Varela teaches public health advocacy and policy to graduate students at Long Island University.

 
 
您目前位置:Home 資訊天地 新聞 news