Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure. Note: Do not include symptoms that are clearly attributable to another medical condition.
  i. Depressed most of the day, nearly every day as indicated by subjective report (e.g. feels sad, empty, hopeless) or observation made by others (e.g. appears tearful)
 ii. Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day (as indicated by subjective account or observation)
 iii.Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (e.g. change of more than 5% of body weight in a month), or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day
 iv.Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day
 v.Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others, not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down)
 vi. Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day
 vii.Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (which may be delusional) nearly every day (not merely self-reproach or guilt about being sick).
 viii.Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day (either by subjective account or as observed by others)
 ix.Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide


The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.


The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or to another medical condition. Note: The above criteria represent a major depressive episode.


The occurrence of the major depressive episode is not better explained by schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, delusional disorder, or other specified and unspecified schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders.


There has never been a manic episode or a hypomanic episode. Note: This exclusion does not apply if all of the manic-like or hypomanic-like episodes are substance induced or are attributable to the physiological effects of another medical condition.


Excessive anxiety and worry (apprehensive expectation), occurring more days than not for at least 6 months, about a number of events or activities (such as work or school performance).


The individual finds it difficult to control the worry.


The anxiety and worry are associated with three (or more) of the following six symptoms (with at least some symptoms having been present for more days than not for the past 6 months): Note: Only one item required in children.
 i.Restlessness, feeling agitated or on edge.
 ii.Being easily fatigued.
 iii.Difficulty concentrating or mind going blank.
 v.Muscle tension
 vi.Sleep disturbance (difficulty falling or staying asleep, or restless, unsatisfying sleep).


The anxiety, worry, or physical symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of life.


The disturbance is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., drug abuse, a medication) or another medical condition (e.g. hyperthyroidism).


The disturbance is not better explained by another medical disorder such as.
• Panic disorder (anxiety or worry about having panic attacks)
• Social anxiety disorder ( Simple definition)
• Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) (simple definition)
• Separation anxiety disorder (simple definition)
• Post traumatic stress disorder ( simple definition)
• Anorexia nervosa ( simple definition)
• Somatic symptom disorder ( simple definition)
• Body dysmorphic disorder ( simple definition)
• Illness anxiety disorder ( simple definition)
• Delusional disorder ( simple definition)
Please consult your doctor in charge or our PLHIV team if you notice yourself suffering some of the diagnostic criteria mentioned above. If you would like to learn more about mental health wellbeing or in case of queries, please do not hesitate to contact us.